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NOVEMBER, ---------------


This project work which is titled The Impact of Manpower Training and Development on Purchasing Personnel in Manufacturing Industry [a case study of PZ Cussons Aba factory] was carried out by ----------- and supervised and approved by Mr ----------, in partial fulfillment for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in purchasing and supply management.


Mr. ------------ -------------------- -----------------

(Project Supervisor) Date Signature


Mr. ------------ ----------------- -----------------------

(Head of Department) Date Signature


External examiner --------------------- -----------------

Date signature







This project work is solely dedicated to God Almighty, the creator of heaven and earth, for His wonderful inspiration throughout the duration of this work.



It is my unconditional desire to express my profound appreciation to those whose efforts and counselling helped me to carry out this project work successful.

Ideas and information have been drawn from numerous books, journals and reports. I am certainly indebted in varying degree to the authors of these publications.

Besides, I owe a tremendous and an unnamable thanks to my prudent Head Of Department and project supervisor in the person of Mr -----------. He painstakingly worked on my manuscript, sparing time and efforts to assist me in correcting, interpreting and supplying the necessary relevant advice to improve the quality of this project.

I also wish to express my unadulterated gratitude to my lectures; Mr ------------, Mr -------------------, Mr -----------------, and others for their assistance in providing me with needed information in the course of this project.

Here I seize this opportunity to express my profound appropriation and gratitude to my parents Mr & Mrs --------------, my beloved Brothers; Mr. -------------- and Mr. ----------, my sisters; Mrs ------------- and Mrs --------------, who inspite of the current economic depression, have made substantial financial and moral contributions towards my academic pursuit.

Finally I will not forget to acknowledge the efforts of my friends; ----------------, -----------------, --------------------, ------------, -------------, --------------, and so many others, your contributions will always be remembered forever.

May God shower his blessings upon you all in Jesus Name Amen.












This project work was primarily designed to examine the impact of manpower training and development on purchasing personnel in manufacturing industry. The scope of this study was restricted to workers in PZ Cussons Aba factory.

In the course of conducting this research, a thorough review of relevant literature was embarked upon to identify the positive impact of manpower training and development on purchasing personnel. Based on the objective of study, research questions and the literature, two hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study. The method of gathering data was the close-end questionnaire. The parameter for analysis was the simple percentage and Chi-square (x2) method of data analysis.

The chapters in this the project were distributed as follow; chapter one introduced the project topic under study; chapter two focused on the review of relevant literature on manpower training and development on purchasing personnel; chapter three dealt with the research methodology; chapter four presented the data and its analysis.

Finally the researcher concluded with a brief summary of the entire research, policy implication and recommendation in the last chapter.




Table Of Contents

Title page i

Approval page ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract vi


1.0             Introduction 1

1.1                                     Background of the study 1

1.2                                     Statement of the problem 3

1.3                                     Objective of the study 6

1.4                                     Research question 7

1.5                                     Statement of hypothesis 8

1.6                                     Significance of the study 11

1.7                                     Scope of the study 12

1.8                                     Limitation of the study 12

1.9                                     Definition of terms. 14


2.0             literature review 17

2.1                                        Introduction 17

2.2                                     Conceptual definition of training and development


2.3             Relationship between training and development 22

2.4             Why training and development 23

2.5             Important of training and development 25

2.6             Attributes of training and development 27

2.7             Steps in training and development programme 28

2.8             Determining the training and development needs 28

2.9             Training and development techniques 31

2.10 Comparism of the various training and development 35

2.10        Contribution of packaging personnel kin training and development programmes 37

2.11        Evaluation of training and development 39

2.12        General Overview of PZ Cussons PLC. 39



3.0             Research Design and Methodology 44

3.1                                     Introduction 44

3.2 Research Design 44

3.3 Sources of Data 45

3.4 Method of Data Collection 47

3.5 Population of the Study and Sample Size Determination 48

3.6 Sampling Technique / Procedure 49

3.7 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instruments 49

3.8 Method of Data / Statistical Analysis. 49



4.0 Data Presentation Analysis and Interpretation 51

4.1 Introductions 51

4.2 Data Presentation/ Analysis 52

4.3 Test of Hypothesis and Interpretation 63


5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations 70

5.1 Summary of Findings 70

5.2 Conclusion 71

5.3 Recommendations 72

Bibliography 75

Appendix 76

Questionnaire 78






There appears to be evidence more convincing about the poor quality of employees working in different sectors of the economy especially in the manufacturing industry. This is why most national governments have started to encourage employees training and development by incorporating grass-root workforce training and development in their nationals policies. This is also seen in the Nigeria government. Here the government in its quest to boast employees training and development, established some agencies like; administrative Stock College of Nigeria (ASCON), Centre for management development (CMD), Industrial Training Centre (ITC), to mention but a few. The private sector also organizes training and development centres in order to contribute their own quota towards manpower training and development at work places.

However, training and development activities differ from sector to sector as well as company to company. The needs and skills areas in which a company desires, determines the levels of training and development programmes such company will embark on in order to attain its goals and objectives. it could be technical skills, supervisory skills, communication skills, materials management skills, accounting skills and other related specific areas of management like procurement skills.

The rate of a nations development is specifically based on the quality of its workforces, which is predicated on the quality of training and development programmes. This is also the case to companies especially manufacturing ones like Paterson Zochonis Cussons. This is so because the quality of training and development activities a company put in place, will increase productivity, greater adaptability to new methods, ensures lesser supervision, preparing one for a higher job, maintain and raising the standard of performance as well as increasing morale and confidence in the performance of duties. Also ugly situation like side-tracing and retrenchment are reduced drastically.

From the foregoing, it can been seen or observed that both training and development aimed at sustaining the nations economy as well as that of a company because both improve efficiency effectiveness of the workforce thereby ensuring total actualization or organizational goods and objectives.



In Nigeria since independence in 1st October 1960, the rate, pattern and techniques of employee training and development have been negatively influenced by ineffectiveness and unpopular government industrial policies and the poor performance of the corporate sectors. This has led to the existence of excess unskilled and semi-skilled manpower in the labour market. As a result of this, many people, though, they have acquired university education but lack the necessary practical skills needed for gainful employment. And those that were employed are not qualifying for immediate corporate functions due to lack of training facilities and high cost of training. This phenomenon is responsible for high rate of retrenchment and unemployment in Nigeria. One major problem that is created by these deficiencies is that there are also many unproductive staff.

The magnitude of this problem is traceable to management perception of what constitutes adequate training and development of manpower. Manpower proponents of adequate training and development argue that unless companies in Nigeria start to adequately train and develop their staff, in vain will their employee performance especially purchasing personnel and productivity limited. Firms that do not spend sizeable portion of their annual profit in adequate manpower training and development will have to penalize growth and the rate of return on their investment.

It is from the foregoing that this study is targeted to the impact of manpower training and development in PZ Cussons Plc and evolved a techniques to solve the problems that may arise from manpower training and development which are hampering employee performance especially purchasing personnel in the company .


The major purpose of his study is to evaluate the impact of manpower training and development in the manufacturing sub-sector with greater reference to PZ Cussons PLC. Other factors influencing the objectives of the study include the following:

  To find out the criteria used by PZ Cussons PLC to train and retain its staff.

  To find out the procedure adopted by PZ Cusson PLC to select manpower that are qualified for training and development.

  To evaluate the impact of training and development programmes on employees especially purchasing personnel.

  To identify the impact of cost on manpower training and development in PZ Cussons PLC Aba factory.

Finally to recommend to the PZ Cussons PLC

New methods and techniques for manpower training and development in order in order to stimulated greater performance and productivity.


For the purpose of this study and to ensure that reader flows along with the researcher, it becomes necessary that the following questions be ask and answered very well:

  Why is it necessary to train and develop staff in a manufacturing company especially PZ Cussons PLC?

  What are the necessary criteria required to train and retrain manpower in manufacturing company?

  What are the procedures that must be in selecting staff for training and development programmes?

  Does cost have any significant impact in training and development of manpower in PZ Cussons PLC Aba factory?

  Why is it necessary to evaluate the impact of training and development programmes on employees especially purchasing personnel?


During the course of this study, many views were raised, investigated and verified. Others that cannot be confirmed immediate were reconciled through the use of hypothesis formulations which are listed below:

  Ho: The number of training and development offered does not influence purchasing personnel performance?

  Hi: The number of training and development offered influence purchasing personnel performance.

  Hi: The type of training and development technique used does not affect the purchasing personnel productivity.

  Ho: The type of training and development technique used affects the purchasing personnel productivity.


1.6             SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is restricted to the impact of manpower training and development on purchasing personnel with reference to PZ Cusson PLC. The reason for this is influenced by the availability of large but untrained labour force in the Nigeria labour market and the gross negative effects of unskilled or semi-skilled personnel in the overall companys performance in the market.

The scope will be further intended to includes;

  The importance of training and development of manpower in manufacturing company with reference to PZ Cussons PLC Aba Factory.

  Appraisal of types of training and development, their facilities, techniques and costs at various levels.

  Objectives and evaluation of training programmes, training processes and handicaps of effective manpower training and development.

PZ Cussons PLC is chosen because of its position in the Nigeria manufacturing sector, as a one of the top manufacturing company in the country. However, other issues not directly linked to the scope already mentioned but relevance to the topic was incorporated into the study.


The topic study was carefully chosen based on its relevance to the success of any manufacturing company like PZ Cussons PLC as purchasing personnel performance is a major determinant of higher productivity. The research study will be of increase important to employers of labour in different sectors, be it in the manufacturing sector or any other sector.

Also managers, mostly personnel managers and management will find it to be a very good reference, student of human resource management and industrial relations will find the outcome of this study relevant to their academics pursuit. Though, with this research, it cannot be claimed that enough justice has been done to the topic but it will be agreed that a contribution had been made.

The researcher effort will therefore in no large measure contributes to the available literature on the topic and as well broaden the knowledge of the researcher and other scholars who may pick interest in this topic in the nearest future.


As a result of the vastness of the area of manpower training and development, the research tends to covers only the impact of manpower training and development in a typical manufacturing company with particular reference to PZ Cussons Plc Aba Factory.

This research work would have gone beyond this it not for ;

  Financial constraint prevalent today.

  The time needed to run round for informational and data collection is not enough.

  The attitude of most human resources manger while being interviewed.

  Other factors limiting the study include non-availability of reliable manpower training and development text books and cost of written materials to be bought from Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) is too expensive.

  Attitude of Nigerians to research work- the tendency of people respondent not to regard questionnaire as important as well as the non-chalant attitude of people to research in the country due to some questionnaire not returned.

Nevertheless, these limitations have not in any way impaired the good intentions of this study.

1.9             DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms are defined as they are used in the study:

  ON-THE-JOB TRAINING: This is a situation in which a trainee is taking instruction on the real job he is performing in the company. He is doing the job but because he is not used to it, he is assigned to a superior who must take some pains to explains and demonstrate the rules of the job to him.

  OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING: This is a situation in which a trainee is sent out of the job for studies. This training include seminars, conference or workshops.

  LECTURE: This is an information talk given before a gathering or an audience or in a class.

  APPRENTICE: This is a situation in which a person spends period of time at the workplace which must be definite to learn about such work. He learns the basic skills about such work and can possibly become expert or professional in future.

  MANPOWER: This means the capability of individuals personnel in a given organization or company. Simply means total number of workers a company needs has at a given period.

  TRAINING: The process of acquiring the appropriate and necessary skills, concepts, rules, attitude and behaviours to enhance the performance of employee in a company.

  PRODUCTIVITY: It is defined as a means of comparing the amount produced with the time taken or the resources used to produced it. It simply means ratio of output and input.

  INDUCTION TRAINING: This is a process of introducing or orienting a new employee to the environment of the company. This means getting a new employee familiarized with the companys environment and colleagues and challenges. This brings about sense of belonging and self confidence in such employee.

  SIDE-TRACKING: This means leading someone or employee into discussing something that is irrelevant to the main job he is doing as a result of lack of adequate training.

  DEVELOPMENT: This is the planned promotion exercise organized for already employed staff in order to for such employee to acquire higher knowledge for the job he is doing.

  RETRENCHMENT: This is a situation in which a company tends to reduces if manpower capability as a result of lack of proper training in some employees.


Anyanwu, A (2000) Research Methodology In business and Social Sciences. Owerri; Canun Publishers Nig. Ltd.

Njoku, C.V, Nwosu, A.N (2010) General Management: A Fundamental Approach. Ambix Printers Nig., Owerri.

Ohadinma, D.C (2005) Management Periscope; Periscoping Issues in Management and Business. Bon Publication, Owerri.

Ohadinma, D.C, Uwaoma, N. (2000) Industrial Personnel Management. Rescue Publishers Owerri.

Ohiri, A.U (2006) Management Principles, Personnel And Human Resource Development. Luton Management Services, Kaduna.

Uzor, A.M (2004,2009) Purchasing Management: Principles and Practices (2nd Edition). Bon Publication, Owerri.





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